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The scope of this study is to understand and implement the concepts of Just-In-Time Production and Total Quality Control along with Industrial Management and Scientific Management Techniques in Industrial Manufacturing.

Introduction

Industrial Management – A time-line analysis of the growth of Industrial Management expertise may help show where the world’s industries learned what they know about producing goods. The hallmark of the factory system is efficiency, which is attained by division of labour, interchangeable parts* and efficient resource usage. Factory efficiency will be enhanced by standardization of product design, component parts and tools by the widespread use of engine-driven machine tools.

*Eli Whitney contributed the idea of Interchangeable Parts which means improvements in dependability, reliability, serviceability and productive efficiency.

Scientific Management – Frederick W. Taylor, Frank and Lillian Gilberth are the pioneers of scientific management, they perfected work-study techniques which are as follows:

1) Improved work method – simple and efficient.
2) Improved method is timed – provides time standards.
3) Workers are trained in the standard method.
4) Jobs are scheduled, supervised and controlled with reference to the standard method and time.

Just In Time Production

The Just-In-Time Production idea is simple: Produce and deliver finished goods just in time to be sold. It requires use of computers, tighter controls on inventory, leads to improve quality significantly, productivity and provides visibility for results so that workers responsibility and commitments are improved. Just-In-Time Production is hand-to-mouth mode of operation, with production and delivery quantities approaching one single unit, piece-by-piece production and material movement. The main focus of Just-In-Time Production is on plant modernization, cut setup times, production lot sizes and supplier delivery quantities.

The following points can be covered under Just-In-Time Production:

Scrap/Quality Improvement – Minimum lot sizes lead to lower scrap and better quality, also defects are discovered quickly and their cause may be nipped in the bud, production of large lots high in defects are avoided. When Just-In-Time leads reduce scrap and more good products, the time and money spent on rework drops.

Motivational Effect – There are three kinds of positive response triggered by heightened awareness of problems and their causes. The workers, staff and bosses may generate following ideas:

1) Controlling defects which improve scrap/quality control.
2) Improving Just-In-Time delivery performance (e.g. more convenient placement of parts to minimize handling delays) which further streamlines Just-In-Time Production.
3) Cutting setup time, which are fed back to further reduce lot size.

Indirect Labour Reduction – Just-In-Time inventory control yields indirect benefits as well as directly affects workers and work output. With fewer inventories there is less cost of interest on capital tied up in inventory.

Productivity and Market Response – Just-In-Time Productivity enhances – less lot size inventory, less buffer inventory, less scrap, less direct labour wasted on rework, fewer indirect costs for interest on idle inventory, less space needed to store inventories, less inventory accounting and less physical inventory control all of which lower the input component of the productivity.

A happy ancillary benefit of Just-In-Time is faster market response, better forecasting and less administration. Less idle inventory in the system cuts overall lead time from raw material purchasing to shipping of finished goods. Marketing can thereby promise deliveries faster and forecast demand better. This leads to decrease administrative budget for data processing, accounting, inspection, materials control and production planning.

Total Quality Control

Total Quality Control greatly enhances the quality control aspect of Just-In-Time Production. It means to the people in the plant that, errors if any should be caught and corrected at the source (where the work is performed). The effect of Total Quality Control is, fewer rework labour hours and less material waste in addition of higher quality finished goods. The primary responsibility is assigning quality to the production people and removing it from quality control department.

The categories of Total Quality Control are as follows –

Goals – The operational goal is to sustain the habit of quality improvement and perfection. With a goal of perfection, organizational responsibility for quality is entirely realigned and a host of supporting principles, concepts, techniques and aids are implemented to drive the organization toward the goal.

Basics– The basic principles of Total Quality Control are as follows:

(1) Process Control – It means controlling the production process by checking the quality while the work is being done.

(2) Easy-to-See Quality – Allowing inspection teams from customer plants to inspect manufacturing plant and the demerits discovered should be considered for improvement.

(3) Insistence on Compliance – Management needs to inform manufacturing that quality comes first and output second and insists on it.

(4) Line Stop – Give each worker the authority to stop the production line to correct quality problems. In more mechanized processes line stops may be automatically accomplished by checking devices attached to the equipment (Fool-proof Devices).

(5) Correction One’s Own Errors – The worker or work group that made the bad products should perform the rework itself to correct the errors.

(6) 100 Percent Check – Inspection of every item not just a random sample, intended to apply rigidly to finished goods. (It is not feasible to check every item manufactured as it may be too expensive to do so manually and technologically forbidden to perform automatically)

(7) Project-by-Project Improvement – The point is having a continual succession of quality improvement projects in every work area year after year. The company should have committee to review proposed quality improvement projects. The best projects are to be selected and assigned to project teams to be worked on in the year.

Housekeeping – Good housekeeping should provide an environment conducive to improved work habits, quality and care of facilities.

Less-Than-Full-Capacity Scheduling – Helps assure that the daily schedule will be met. It also avoids pressuring workers, staff and over taxing equipments; thereby avoids errors in quality that could arise from haste. Preventing errors serves to decrease the need for line stops and improves output rate.

Daily Machine Checking – The machine operator must check the machine before starting operation; as faulty machines are often the cause of defectives. This activity of daily machine checking helps in reducing the chances of line stop because of machine breakdown.

Conclusion

By implementing Just-In-Time Production concept by industries, can manufacture and deliver standard quality goods in time to the world market. The full Just-In-Time approach requires effective management to implement key system features as well as daily managerial attention to make the system work. Production, not Quality Control, must have primary responsibility for quality; and everybody, including top management must participate in project-by-project quality improvement.

References

  • Homer Dansby. Evolution of Japanese Production Control System.
  • Robert E. Fox. Keys to Successful Materials Management Systems: A Contrast between Japan, Europe and the U.S. National Conference Proceedings. American Production and Inventory Control Society. October 1981. 322-26.
  • Y. Sugimori, K. Kusunoki, F. Cho, S. Uchikawa. Toyota Production System and Kanban System – Materialization of Just-in-Time and Respect for Human Systems. International Journal of Production Research. Vol. 15, No. 6 (1977).
  • A. V. Feigenbaum. Total Quality Control: Engineering and Management. New York: McGraw Hill. 1961.
  • J. M. Juran. Product Quality – a Prescription for the West. Part I: Training and Improvement Programs. Management Review. Vol. 70. No. 6. June 1981.

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Training of personnel on deviation reporting and deviation handling is essential to a successful implementation of deviation management. All personnel must have a clear understanding of the deviation concept on all level of operation.

From a cleaning employee to a top level manager, everyone in the organization must apply deviation management procedure or instructions.

In order to do that, it must be mandated that all employee will attend at least once per year training on how to identify and report deviations.

 

The Three Levels

It is important to keep record of all the training’s performed in order to demonstrate to auditors that all personnel in the organization are competent and can report, handle, and/or manage deviations in a swift and accurate manner.

There are three levels of training on deviation management:

  1. Level 1: Identifying deviations and reporting them
  2. Level 2: Deviation Handling and Investigating
  3. Level 3: Deviation’s Corrective and Preventive Action

Level 1: Identifying Deviations and Reporting Them

  • This level of training should be mandated for all employees.
  • In this level, the trainee must learn how to notice and identify a course of actions or results which might indicate that something deviated from the standard and approved procedures in the quality management system.
  • This particular skill is crucial to the deviation reporting.
  • The trainer must spend considerable time developing attention to details in trainees. This particular competency forms the basis on which the trainer will build the trainees knowledge of deviation management.
  • The second obstacle to overcome is to make the employees understand that deviation reporting isn’t the equivalent of mistakes reporting.
  • In my experience, at first, many employees will see deviations as a way for the top management to record their mistakes for performance evaluation and bonus estimation.
  • The trainer must explain that it is the opposite of that concept, deviation reporting is your chance to express your interest in preserving the quality of the product or the service you provide in your organization.
  • It asserts your loyalty to the a quality based product and/or service and your devotion to the company’s standards.
  • Level 2: Deviation Handling and Investigating

    • This level of training is exclusive for management staff, including both lower and upper management.
    • In this level of training, the trainer must focus on investigational techniques and root cause analysis.
    • The basis of the training is risk analysis. The trainer must be an expert in risk identification, assessment, evaluation, reduction, and communication.
    • Other essential techniques include listening skills, communication, team work, and meeting management. These skills must be honed by the trainees during the training and during normal working hours.
    • The trainer must emphasis that this level of training is a mere introduction into deviation handling and that practice makes perfect. The reason is no one can develop all the skills necessary for investigating and solving complex deviations in one training module. The experience of the person practicing those tasks is the ammunition that would help him or her succeed at his or her job.

    Level 3: Deviation’s Corrective and Preventive Action

    • This level of training is exclusive to quality assurance personnel and upper management (including other department’s managers).
    • The aim of this training is to develop the ability of trainees to find the most efficient and effective actions to correct and prevent the deviation from reoccurring.
    • As we mentioned in 3.1.8. there are several points to consider when taking corrective and preventive actions. These points must be included in the training.
    • The trainer can be someone with experience with the applied procedure for corrective and preventive action in the organization and it would be better if he or she is experienced in risk management as mentioned in level 2 training.
    • If the training is being conducted for the first or second time, the trainer must emphasis to upper management that the trainee will need time to develop the experience necessary for them to create systematic actions with little to no side effects.
    • This training must conclude that the personnel required to decide the corrective and preventive actions must convene periodically in order to discuss the effectiveness of their actions and see what they can improve in their decision approach.

    Optional Training Sessions

    There are several competencies which are essential to successful deviation management, time management is one, communication management is also an essential feature which is greatly needed for the continuous and effective follow-up of deviations throughout the organization.

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Not all suppliers are the same, for example when you buy a car or a house, time and effort is dedicated into finding the best provider with the best product in terms of quality and reliability.

Choosing a Vendor

The same methodology needs to be dedicated when choosing a vendor for your business. Not only will you be purchasing their products or services, but you will also be dealing with them on a regular basis hence your personal relationship most also be strong.

Regulated Environment

When working in a regulated environment one of the key questions that needs to be considered is will the product of service affect your product quality. If the answer is yes then it is paramount that you can trust your supplier/vendor and the quality of their product or service

Supplier Qualification Online Course

This module is taken from our course on Supplier Qualification.

 

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